What is dandruff?

Dandruff is not always a common chronic skin condition, it can also be a temporary issue that occurs when the body goes through hormonal changes such as puberty or pregnancy. As the scalp is typically covered in hair and we can’t see the exact condition of our skin, dandruff manifests itself by white flakes of dead skin that fall from the scalp.

Learn more about dandruff

The facts about dandruff

  • Dandruff - a common and recurring scalp problem. Every second person is affected once in their lifetime and suffers from dandruff which is also often accompanied with symptoms such as itching, burning sensation and redness of the scalp.

  • Dandruff affects more men than women One reason for this is that men produce more sebum for hormone-related reasons. This makes dandruff sticky, which encourages excess growth of Malassezia furfur.

  • The most common cause of dandruff is a yeast-like fungus. Malassezia furfur occurs naturally in the microflora on the outer layer of the scalp at a concentration of up to 46% - in every person.

  • Excessive growth of the fungus leads to dandruff, itching and redness of the scalp - this may lead to seborrhoeic dermatitis in severe cases.

Top causes of Dandruff

The skin constantly produces new skin cells and sheds old cells to stay healthy. Dandruff occurs when this cycle of skin renewal speeds up. A flaky and itchy scalp can be the result of:

Dry Skin

Dry Skin - Dandruff is more prevalent in cold weather which causes the skin to dry


Malassezia furfur is the most common cause of dandruff. It's a fungus naturally found on the outer skin, which causes problems when it grows excessively


The skin can be aggravated by various external factors such as air pollution or low humidity


Dandruff can also be irritated due to excessive application of hair styling products or the continuous use of head covers

Certain Illness

Internal factors such as hormonal changes or stress can play a part

Hair products

Issues such as illness or diet (e.g. zinc deficiency) also allow bacteria to multiply

Tips for preventing dandruff

Avoid Stress

If you suffer from dandruff being stressed can sometimes worsen the symptoms as stress weakens the body's natural defenses making it more difficult to deal with the irritation of dandruff.

Balanced diet

Eating well is not only good for your health but is also good for your hair and scalp. Food that are rich in Omega-3 can help maintain a healthy scalp.


Lightly massaging your scalp during hair washing with a medicate dandruff shampoo will help to break up any dandruff flakes and ensure the scalp is fully coated.

Regular hair washing

It's important to wash your hair on a regular basis to remove the oils that build up from everyday life.

Clean hair brushes

Ensure you clean your hair brush removing any dead hair and styling product residue.

Use styling products in moderation

Overuse of styling products such as Gel and Hair Spray can cause a build up of oil on your scalp and hair, which can cause the scalp to be irritated and dandruff to form. Try not to over use and always ensure styling products are washed out thoroughly.

Tips for caring for your scalp.

  • Wear a hat when in direct sunlight to protect your scalp from UV rays

  • Avoid chemical treatments such as hair colourant and permanent styling tools

  • Don't use boiling water when washing hair, set the temperature to lukewarm

  • Brush your hair regularly to remove dead skin cells

Goodbye to other Dandruff and Tar Shampoos

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Say goodbye to dandruff and itching

Nizoral® treats the cause of dandruff and itchiness for continous scalp health.

It might look like dandruff - even if it's not

What everybody can do against dandruff

Dandruff and diseases caused by fungi

Dandruff caused by external factors